by J.A. Wylie



To The People of Scotland, From Whose Ranks Mainly Have Sprung The Philosophers And Divines, The Poets, Writers, And Martyrs, Who Have Been The Glory Of Their Country.


Chapter 1. FIRST PEOPLING OF BRITAIN. The Phoenicians the first Discoverers of Britain, - They trade with it in Tin, - Greatness of Sidon and Tyre partly owing to British Trade, - Triumphal Gates of Shalmanezer, - Tyrian Harbors, and probable size of Tyrian Ships, When and whence came the first Inhabitants of Britain? - The resting place of the Ark the starting- point of the enquiry, - Mount Ararat, The Four great Rivers, - Their courses regulate the Emigration of the Human Family, - Divided by it into a Southern and Northern World, For what purpose? - The Three Fountainheads of the World’s population, - Ham peoples Egypt, - Shem, Arabia and Persia, Migration of Japet’s descendants, - Two great Pathways, - The basin of the Mediterranean, - The slopes of the Caucasus running betwixt the Caspian and the Euxine, - The sons of Japhet travel by both routes, The one arrives in Britain through the Pillars of Hercules, - The other by the Baltic, - The Journey stamps its imprint on each, - Their footprints, - The sons of Gomer, of Cymri, the first inhabitants of

Britain, .

Chapter 2. JOURNEY OF THE KYMRI TO BRITAIN. Three guides to the Cradle of the Race, - Etymology, Mythology, Folklore, - All three conduct to Iran, - The Welsh Triads, - Division of the Earth among The Sons of Noah, - Nimrod’s Tower, - An attempt to establish a Universal Monarchy, - Migration of the bands of Gomer, - Their journey to Britain, - Nomades, - The pasture- grounds of Europe the nursing place of Warriors, - Character of the first Settlers, .

Chapter 3. HABITS, HABITATIONS, AND ARTS OF THE FIRST SETTLERS. First Settlers bring the essentials of Revelation with them, The first Ages the Purest, - Log huts of first Dwellers, - Aboriginal Dwellings on banks of Loch Etive, - Picture of the Inmates, - Food, Arts, Garments of the Aborigines, - Weems, description of, - Progress of the Arts, - Beauty of later Home Art, - Growth of Government and early Kings, .

Chapter 4. THE STONE AGE. The Stone Age coeval with Man, - The only record of the first Races, - The Cairn on the Moor, - The Sleeper within, - Glimpse into his Coffin, - Weapons interred with the warrior, Uses of the Stone Axe, - Flint Arrowheads, - Battle in the Stone Age, Mental horizon of the Men of the Stone Age, - The Landscape of the Stone Age, .

Chapter 5. THE BRONZE AGE The Celt brings Bronze with him into Britain, - Quickening in all Arts, - First interruption of the Celts into Europe, - threaten Athens and Rome, - Europe known to Herodotus as the land of the Celts, - Nomades but fierce Warriors, - Their Tastes and Character, - Changes consequent on the introduction of Bronze, - In Ship building, - In house building, - In Domestic Utensils, - Cinery Vases, - Burning of the Dead, - Advance in Dress, - In Spinning and Weaving, - In Agriculture, - invention of Bronze unknown antiquity, .

Chapter 6. THE IRON AGE. Uses of iron, - Power it confers on Man, - First historic traces of Iron in Asia, - Noric Swords, - Revolutionizes the Art of War, - Employed for personal Adornment, - Iron Ring Money, Interred with the Dead, - Changes with Iron, - Advance in Art, in War, in the Industries, - The Weaver and Potter, - Grain- stones, - Female Toilet, - Banquets and Cuisine on the Iron Age, - Brochs, - Their great number, - What knowledge of a Future State? - Divine Traditions transmitted from Noah, - No Idol of Graven Image dug up in Scottish soil, - Worship of Caledonians less gross than that of the Greeks and Romans, - Inference from mode of Burial, - Valhalla and its Delights, Departed Heroes permitted to revisit their Barrow, - A Trysting place with earthly Friends, - Lesson of History, or Earth the picture of Heaven, .

Chapter 7. THE DRUIDS- THE SUN- WORSHIP OF ASIA AND CALEDONIA Unwritten History or Testimony of the Barrows and Cairns, - Authenticity and Truth of these Records, - How did the Caledonian Worship? - Had he any Knowledge of a Supreme Being? Testimony of the Stone Circles, - In what Age were they Erected? Various Theories, - These Theories considered, - Did the Vikings erect them? Are they Graveyards? - Monuments of Early Nations reared to their Gods, - Stone Pillars, - Biblical Examples, - The First Altars, The Idols and Idol Groves of Early Canaan, - Rise and Progress of Stone and Sun Worship, - Travels westward and reaches Caledonia, Stone Circles and Cromlechs of Ancient Moab, - Light thrown by them on the Early Caledonia, .

Chapter 8. DRUIDS, DEITIES, HIERARCHY, DOCTRINE Religion the most Potential of all Forces, - The Druidic Age as plainly written on the Face of Scotland as the Stone and Iron Ages, - Scottish Druidism imported from the East, - Testimonies of M. Reynaud, and others, - Druidism, a Branch of Sunworship, - The Root Ideas of Revelation in all the Idolatries, - Explanation, - The Hierarchy of the Druids, - Their Studies in Science and magic, - The Arch- Druid, - Their political power, Their annual Convention, - Their Emoluments and Privileges, - Their Doctrines, - Testimonies of Caesar, Pliny, Tacitus, and Pomponius Mela, - A Supreme Being and a Life to come taught by them, - A long Initiation demanded of their Disciples, - Their Tenets wrapt up in mystery, .

Chapter 9. THE DRUIDS EGG- THE MISTLETOE- THE DRUIDS SACRIFICE. The Druid’s Egg known to the Ancients, - Marvelous Process of Production, - Wonderful Virtues, - The Mistletoe, Ceremony of gathering it, - Was it to Druid a symbol of the Savior? No ground to think so, - Sacrificial Rites, - The High Priest, the Procession, the Victim, - The Three Acts and the Three Lessons in the Sacrifice of the Druid, - Universality of the Rite of Sacrifice, Explanation, - Philosophy of Sacrifice as a Mode of Worship, .

Chapter 10. THE TEMPLES OR STONE CIRCLES OF THE DRUID. The Stone Circle the earliest of Temples, - No Architectural Grace, - In Construction Simple, Rugged, Strong, - Stennes in Orkney, - A Temple to the SunGod, - Its Antiquity, - Stonehenge, - Its Site and Size, Supposed Description of Stonehenge by Hecataeus, B. C. , - Its Hippodrome, - Weird Appearance and Outline of its History, - Its Dimensions, - Footnote, Avebury, - Its General Arrangements, - Its Centeral Mount, - Its Grand Approaches, - Its surrounding Sepluchral Tumuli, - Beauty the Characteristic of the Greek Temple; Strength and Size that of the Druid, - Mount Nebo a great Dolmen Centre, - Ruins of Dolmens and Stone Circles around Mount Nebo, - Universality of Stone Worship, - Human Victims offered by the Druid, - Human Sacrifice practised by Greeks and Romans, -” Stones of Remembrance,” .

Chapter 11. THE ALTEINS; OR, STONES OF FIRE- BELTANE; OR, MAY- DAY AND MID- SUMMER FESTIVALS. Rise of Pagan Mythology, - Footnote, Indelibility of Aboriginal Names, - Key to Early History of Locality, - Clachan, - Its Meaning, - Altein, - Stone of Fire, - The Altein of Old Aberdeen, - Tragedies enacted at, - Stone of Liston, - Druidic Ceremonies of th October, - extinction of Fire on Hearths, - Rekindled from “Stone of Fire- brands,” of Tyre, - Beltane, or st May, - Beltane Rites at Crieff, - At Callander, - Midsummer Fires, St. John’s Fires in Ireland, - In France, - Identity of these with the Fires of Moloch, - the Clocks of the Druid, .

Chapter 12 VITRIFIED FORTS- ROCKING -STONES- DRUIDS CIRCLENO MANS LAND- DIVINATION- GALLOW HILLS- A YOKE BROKEN. Vitrified Forts, - Probable Relics of Druidism, - Rocking -Stones, Common to many Countries, - Known to the Egyptians, - Described by Pliny, etc., - Judgment Stones, - Stone at Boddam, - How Placed? The Druid’s Circle, - Its Virtue, - Surviving Druidic Usages, - The teine eigin,. - Days on which the Plough was not to be Yoked, - Plots that must not be Cultivated, - Divination practised by Druids, - Laws or “GallowHills,” - Mounts of Divination, - Enslavement of the People by the Druid, - His Yoke broken, .

Chapter 13. SCOTLAND AS SEEN BY AGRICOLA AND DESCRIBED BY TACITUS AND HERODIAN. History with her Torch, - Invasion of England by Caesar, - Startling Reverse, - Agricola crosses the Tweed, Penetrates to Firt of Forth, - Agricola probably accompanied by Tacitus, - The Time come for Scotland to be Born, - A Marvellous Transformation, - Picture of Scotland as seen by Tacitus, - Its Moors and Forests, - Its Rivers and Pathways, - Its Seas, .

Chapter 14. THE CALEDONIAN AS PAINTED BY HERODIAN. The Land and the Natives as Painted by Herodian, - Their Armor , - Their Bodies Painted or Tattooed, - Process of Tattooing, - Their Hair, - A Contrast, the Scotland of the First Century and the Scotland of the Nineteenth, .

Chapter 15. CALEDONIAN HOUSES- LAKE DWELLINGS Picture of the Scotland of today, - The Architecture of Italy and the architecture of Scotland in the First Century, -Not a Stone Edifice in Scotland in Agricola’s Day, - A Hut of Wattles, - Lacustrine of Lake Dwellings, -Crannog of Lochea, Tarbolton, Ayshire, - Description, - Lochar Moss and its Buried Treasures , - The Site of Glassgow and its Embedded canoes, - Changes in the Estuaries of the Forth and Tay, - The Modern Scotland bigger than the Ancient, .

Chapter 16 ROMAN PERIOD OF BRITAIN- ENGLAND INVADED BY CAESAR, AND SCOTLAND BY AGRICOLA. An Unpromising Land, - A yet more Unpromising People, - Roman Invasion, B. C. , - Flight off Deal, - Devastations of the Roman Sword in Britain, - Opinion of Tacitus, - Caesar withdraws from Britain, - Aulus Plutius enters in A.

D. , - The British Chief Caractacus before the Emperor Claudius, -Agricola arrives in A. D. , - Character of Agricola, - Crosses the Tweed and Hews his way to the Forth - The Caledonians and the Legions Face to Face, - Line of Forts and Skirmishes, - In third Summer Agricola Transverses Fife to the Tay, - In the Fourth , constructs his Line of Forts, - In the Fifth, makes an Expedition to the West Coast, - Next turns towards the North, - His Fleet, - Tragic Fate of German Contingent, - Agricola’s Hesitations, - Night attack on the Roman Camp near Lochleven, - The Caledonian Tribes hold a Convention, - They Prepare for War, - Soldiers Enrolled and Weapons Forged, - If Agricola will not come to Grampians, the Grampians will go to Agricola, .

Chapter 17. THE BATTLE OF MONS GRAMPIUS. The Cloud on the North Hills, - March of the Roman Army Northward, - First sight of the Tay, or Ecce Tiberim, - Strathmore or Ecce Campanian, - Where was Mons Grampius? - At Ardoch? at Meigle? at Fettercairn? - The Fleet and Discovery of the Orkneys, - The Romans approach the Grampians, The Muster of the Caledonians, - Numbers of the Caledonians and the Romans, - The War Chariots of the Caledonians, - Speech of Galagcus to his Soldiers, - Speech of Agricola to his Army, - Order of Battle, Battle Joined, - Disadvantageous Armor of the Caledonians, Fierceness and Carnage of the of the Fight, - Tacitus’ Description of the Field, - The Caledonians Defeated, - Their Bravery, - Night Rejoicings in the Roman Camp, - Sights which Morning Discloses, the Wail among the Grampians, - The First of Scotland’s Historic Battles, - Its Fruit, - It begins the long struggle for Scottish Independence, - Agricola retreats southwards, .

Chapter 18. EXPEDITION OF SERVERUS AND WITHDRAWAL OF ROMANS FROM BRITAIN. Northern Boundary of the Empire a moving line, - Antonine’s Wall betwixt Tyne and Solway, - Boundary again advanced to the Forth, - Pushed back to the Solway, - Severus’ Expedition, A. D. - - The Caledonians shun battle, - Traps set for the Legions, - Hardships of the March, - Severus reaches the Cromarty Firth, - Retreat and dies at York, - Rich and magnificent Realms subject to Rome, - Yet not content without little Britain, - Changes effected by the Roman occupation, - Roads, - Husbandry, - Trade and Commerce, - Villas and Towns, - South England a favorite Residence of the Romans, - Law and Literature introduced, - Roman civilization swept away, .

Chapter 19. CHRISTIANITY ENTERS BRITAIN. Entrance of two new Powers, - Why is Scotland of today not a Land of Painted Men? - The Civilization of Scotland other than that of the nations around it, - Its special Type or Characteristic, - A new Life descends on Scotland, The two necessities, - Conscience or the Moral Sense the measure of a Nation’s Liberty, - The Model of Nations, - The second century and its facilities for the communication of thought, - Wide diffusion of Christianity by the end of second century, - Picture of the first British Convert to Christianity, - The Pudens and Claudia of Paul’s Epistle, The Pudens and Claudia of Martial’s Epigram, - Chain of proof that they are the same couple, - Claudia most probably a British Lady, Proof from Tacirus of the early entrance of Christianity into Britain, Did Paul preach the Gospel in Britain, - Contention of Usher and Stillingfleet that he did, - Outline of their argument, - Rapidity of Christianity’s spread in the first age, - Tertullian’s Testimony, - Earliest Congregations in Britain, - Converts beyond the Roman Wall, Prosperity of British Church after Diclesian’s Persecution, - British pastors at Councils of Arles and Sardica, - Routes by which Christianity entered Britain, - Britain Christianized by Missionaries from the East, - Testimony of Neander, .

Chapter 20. THE CRADLE OF THE SCOTS. The Caledonian and Scot to form one Race, - The two branches of the Cymric Family, the Scythians and the Gauls, - The early Inhabitants of Britain Cymric, - Additional varieties, - Caesar on the Britons of his day, - Scythia a fountain- head of Nations, - Picture of the Scythians, - Ancient testimonies to the Virtue and Valor of the Scythians, - They overthrow Rome, - Scythia the original cradle of the Scottish Race, - Scythae and Scoti, two Names for one People, - Journey to the south over Germany and France, - They arrive in Spain, - Cross to Ireland, - Division of the Scythic Stream, - Their physical Prowess, - Their Mode of Fighting , Burials , Dress, Food, Feasts, - Their War Songs and Music, - The one Extant Pictish Word, .

Chapter 21. THE COMING OF THE SCOTS TO IRELAND. The Scots first mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus in end of Fourth Century, Arrive in Ireland probably in the First Century, - The Scots formed the van in the descent of the Gothic Nations, - A marked Individuality, The Inhabitants of Ireland in Patrick’s time, - Scots give Kings to Ireland, - Their Fighting qualities, .

Chapter 22. THE PLANTING OF THE SCOTTISH NATION. First Appearance of the Scots in Scotland, - Join the Picts in Ravaging the Territory betwixt the Teo Walls, - Penetrate to the South of England, Forced back by the Theodosius, - A second Irruption of Pict and Scot, - Again Repulsed, - A Third Raid, - A Third Repulse, - Fall of Rome, Miseries of Britain on Departure of the Romans, - Groans of the Britons, - Four Nations in Britain, - ANGLO- SAXONS, -- Their Territory extends from Portmouth to the Forth, - The BRITONS, - Their Kingdom Stretches from Cornwall to the Clyde, - The PICTS or CALEDONIANS, - Their Kingdom from the Forth to the Pentland Frith, The SCOTS, - Angus and Loarne, - First Capital of Scots, - Early System of Government, - Peace between the Scots and Picts, .

Chapter 23. KINDLING OF THE LAMP OF IONA. A Coracle crosses the sea from Ireland , - Columba and his Twelve Companions, - They step ashore on Iona, - First Survey of the Island, - One of the Great Voyages of History, - Columba obtains a Grant of the Island, Conversion of King Bruidi, - A Century’s Peace in Caledonia, - AngloSaxon Conquest of England, - English Christianity swept away, - A Partition Wall of Heathenism betwixt Scottish and Latin Christianity, Iona and Rome, or Two Principles at the two opposite extremities of Europe, - Work of the Men of Iona, - Their Mission Field Christendom, - Brief Sketch of their Mission Tours, - Their Dress, Dangers, Bravery, .

Chapter 24. BATTLES POLITICAL AND ECCLESIASTICAL. Early Light Bearers, - Ninian and Kentigern, - Servanus, - Patrick, - Columban Institution, - Its Work, Training, of Missionaries, and Evangelization of Scotland, - The School and the Plough, - A Spirit of Peace Breathes over the Land, - King Aidan anointed by Columba, - Summary of his Reign, - Ethelfrith of Northumbria Slaughters the Monks of Bangor, Arrival of Augustine and his Monks in England, - What comes out of it, - Oswald of Northumbria finds asylum in Scotland, - Sits at the Feet of the Elders of Iona, - King Edwin Converted to the Roman Rite, His Death in Battle, - Oswald Ascends the Throne of Northumbria, Sends to Iona for Evangelists to Instruct his People, - Aidan sent, -Aidan and the King Evangelize together, - Oswald dies and Oswy ascends the Throne, - Perversion of King Oswy, - He drives the Columban Missionaries out of Northumbria, - War breaks out, Bloody Battle at Nectan’s Mere, - It saves Iona, - Lindisfarne, of “Holy Island,” - Cuthbert of Melrose, - His beautiful Life, - Goes to Lindisfarne, - His touching Death scene, .

Chapter 25. IONA AND ROME, OR THE SECOND ROMAN INVASION. Calm after Tempest, - Two Learned and Wise Princes, - Venerable Bede, - Outline of his Life and Labors, - What he Lacks, - Eugene vi. of Scotland, - His Learning, - The Eighth Century of Scotland Rises in Haze, - Romish Missionaries at the Court of Nectan, King of the Southern Picts, - Questions of Easter and the Tonsure, - Nectan Listens and Submits, - The Clergy who refuse to have their Heads Shorn are driven out, - They find Refuge among the Scots, - War follows, - Nectan Retires to a Monastery, - Confusions and battles, .

Chapter 26. UNION OF THE SCOTS AND PICTS -THE SCOTTISH NATION. Invasion of the Vikings, - Form their Ships, - Prodigies in the Sky, Their Terrible Ravages as described by Simeon, - Lindisfarne Destroyed, - Iona Ravaged, - Slaughterings in the Western Isles, - Iona Finally Destroyed, - Removed to Kells in Ireland, and Dunkeld in Scotland, - Preeminent among the European Countries, - War between the Northern and Southern Picts, - The Scots join the Northern Picts, These Wars Traced to the Romanizing Monks, - The Various Indications and Proofs of this, - Learned Scotsmen in France, - Gradual weakening of the Picts, - The Religious Divisions and Wars of the Picts pave the way for Ascendancy of the Scots, - Extinction of Royal Line of the Picts, - Throne Claimed by Alpin the Scot, - Death of Alpin on the Battlefield, - His Son Kenneth resumes the War, - Extraordinary Stratagem, - The Final Battle near Perth, - The Scots Victorious, Kenneth MacAlpin Ascends the Throne, - The One Scottish Nation, .